14. Progress to Humanness

14.0 Introduction

Liberalism, consensus and tolerance allowed the emergence of the West. The increase of the primitive tribes to a national size, the debilitating diet of the population due to the consumption of only two or three vegetables (carrots, onions, peas) without … Continue reading

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14.1 Intelligence

14.1.1 Biological Intelligence versus internal coherence of thought Many mammalian and bird species are able to modulate and improve the instinctual responses by a process of learning. In humans, this learning process culminates in an individual intelligence. Intelligence is the … Continue reading

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14.2 Reason and Emotion

Our brain is severely handicapped for facing the challenges presented by the society of information in which we enter. The shortcomings are found at the level of perception of the external world, in our feeble capacity to handle numbers and … Continue reading

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14.3 The Human Self-evaluation

One of the unique products of the thinking brain is the evaluation of events and self with a good or bad gloss. This universal human preoccupation with good and bad is not manifested in animals. The key neural component of … Continue reading

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14.4 Strive to Reason: The Enlightenment

Despite the widely advertised claims of France and England as the sources of Enlightenment, there is no doubt that its radiance derived from the Dutch Spinoza (1632-1677), who raised damagingly unanswerable questions about the validity of theology. Spinoza challenged received … Continue reading

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14.5 Demographic Inflation

The life span of human adults in preindustrial societies worldwide averaged 25 to 30 years, with record life expectancies noticed in some countries as Sweden and Sardinia, and some peculiar habitats as the abbeys of Christendom. In Sardinia, men and … Continue reading

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14.6 Patriotism versus Nationalism

In France, the right of the soil (jus soli) was a feal heritage: all serfs born on an estate remained bound to it for life. Louis XIV reinforced this tendency. His insatiability ended with a French military discomfiture that exacerbated … Continue reading

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14.7 Racial Superiority

Classification is an essential element of the thinking process of post-logical times. We conceptualize human beings as belonging to different classes as soon as we distinguish males from females, parents from children, old from young, one generation from the next, … Continue reading

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14.8 Social Darwinism and Civilization

Social Darwinism advanced that societies should be organized as a struggle for survival of the fittest. The problem that arose was how retaining order together with respect of individuality and reconcile these two concepts with the idea of culture intimately … Continue reading

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14.9 Slavery versus Liberty

The belief that men are born free is a “post-logical-era” concept: free men are those who are not slaves. Liberty is a value corresponding to an Anglo-Saxon individualistic orientation but is a notion alien to the vast majority of the … Continue reading

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