8. The Neolithic Expansion

8.0 Introduction

Most scientific communities, ranging from archaeology to botany to molecular biology, grant an extraordinary importance to the study of agricultural origins because food surpluses made possible by agriculture have fueled major cultural developments, culminating in the emergence of urban societies … Continue reading

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8.1 Southeast Asia

The Mousterian culture developed by the Neanderthals was known in Southeast Asia but always remained at a poor level of craftsmanship. Forty thousand years ago, a “Lignic Period» characterized by the abandonment of stone tools and the use of wooden … Continue reading

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8.2 America

A research team led by T. Dillehay from the University of Kentucky discovered stone tools and cut wood in Monte Verde (Chile) 4 about 12,500 years before present (BP). Dillehay has clues but no certainty of human presence, at the … Continue reading

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8.3 Europe

8.3.1 Cro Magnon Man Cro-Magnon man was tall, had square jaws, was white with a lot of hair covering his body, and had arched feet. He appeared at the beginning of a thaw during the latest glaciary period, about 35,000 … Continue reading

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8.4 The Near East

8.4.1 The first farming communities All around the world, the capacity to obtain seeds from plants and sow these to increase the stock, seems to have been mastered by hunters-gatherers who originally planted them for magic purposes. Many ancient people … Continue reading

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8.5 Parameters affecting Sapiens successful expansion

The penetration of virgin lands by the Neolithic farmer who had evolved in a subtropical climate was by no means easy. He had to adapt to environments where he suffered cold and heat, wild predators and more insidious threats as … Continue reading

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8.6 Metallurgy

The importance of materials in the advance of civilization is apparent in the naming of epochs, from the Stone Age through the Bronze Age and Iron ages. The recent European industrialization period may be called a steel period and nowadays … Continue reading

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8.7 Gun powder

The evolvement of efficient weapons relying on chemical ingenuity and allowing remote combat progressed along two lines: naphtha and saltpeter. Naphtha was used very early in the East for warfare purposes. The formula was refined by the addition of bitumen, … Continue reading

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