from the Origin to the Hominids

1.0 Introduction

The contemporary great issue among cosmologists and astronomers is whether the Universe will collapse. The Universe started from an explosion and an expansion, and the reader who worries about the future in one or two billion years would like to … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.1 The Prime Mover

"In the interval between dissolution and creation, Vishnou-Cesha rested in his own substance, luminous with dormant energy, among the seeds of all the lives to come." This is almost all that can be said about the time when there was … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.2 The Universe

We all have a direct experience of earth, which is a planet possessing a satellite -the moon- and evolving with several other planets around a star called the sun. The Ancient Greeks knew this and arrived at this conclusion without … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.3 The Big Bang

Einstein was not alone in his endeavors, nor was Planck, nor was Darwin, nor was Galileo, etc. Many of Einstein’s contemporaries contributed so much to the development of the theory of relativity that some came close to preempting Einstein. If … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.4 The Expansion of the Universe

The age of the universe has racked the minds of theologians, philosophers and astronomers for a long time. According to the contemporary orthodox Jews, the world was created in 3761 before the birth of Christ. Bishop James Ussher, Anglican archbishop … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.5 The Homogeneity of the Universe

A perfectly homogeneous universe composed solely of hydrogen, photons and other elementary particles would have been unsuitable to support the emergence of Life. On the other hand, one may envisage a hierarchy of structures where sizes go from microns to … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.6 The Formation of Galaxies and Stars

There exist about 100 million galaxies now, and there were more in earlier times. The classical galaxial type is a flat ellipsoid whose luminosity increases from the rim towards the center (fig.1.4). Figure 1.4. Messier 81 clearly shows two spiral … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.7 The Formation of Heavy Atoms

Thirteen billion years ago, the Milky Way was a rotating mass of turbulent hydrogen gas. Under the influence of gravitational forces, the gas in regions of low turbulence and high density condensed into 100 billion stars. As the stellar material … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

1.8 The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Small bodies of planetary size cannot contract to the point of reaching fusion temperatures because of mechanical incompressibility. The planets closest to the sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are essentially composed of silicon and iron. The more remote … Continue reading

Posted in 1. The Evolution of Atoms | Leave a comment

2.0 Introduction

Organic chemistry is an arduous subject of study. The gigantic investigative effort put by Western civilization into the unraveling of the matrix of life leads to the conclusion that the original building blocks on which life is based are few … Continue reading

Posted in 2. The Evolution of Molecules | Leave a comment