18. Progress in Civilization

18.1 France

The sanguinary military successes and the continuous expansion of France warranted the excellence of its policy. The denunciation by T. More first and Fenelon, Montaigne and Voltaire later of the magnification of the State, its kleptomania, the impoverishment of its … Continue reading

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18.2 Switzerland

The Ottonian Empire had reduced standing armies, and the taxes necessary to keep them, to a very low level since war was possible only during about 65 days of the year. In this civilized context, the various European powers relied … Continue reading

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18.3 England: Biological intelligence applied in Government

The Celts, essentially the Menapians, arrived in England from Belgium in the 3rd century BC. Wales, Welsh and Belg are words with the same etymology. The Germanic Angles, Jutes and Saxons who invaded sparsely Romanized England in the 4th century … Continue reading

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18.4 Marxism

18.4.1 Guilds and Trade-Unions The guilds of Flanders, Holland and Italy imposed a social justice of equality. Neither the quality nor solidity nor speed of delivery of the elaborated objects were favored: any individual who did his job earned his … Continue reading

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18.5 The Rise of the United States of America

In Autumn 1620, a small congregation of hundred and two persecuted English Puritan militants boarded the Mayflower for the shores of an inhospitable country, where ninety nine landed on 16 December. Only 50 of the immigrants survived the first year … Continue reading

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18.6 The contemporary threat of nationalist fundamentalism

We are at an historical turning point because the contemporary domination of the US has been deemed evil and was challenged on the 11th of September 2001. Three targets were chosen: the White House, symbol of political power, the pentagon, … Continue reading

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18.7 The Capital of the Free Man

Countries ashamed of their past transubstantiate it, occult it and attempt to forget it. “Du passé faisons table rase” (From the past, let us make a clean table) chanted the French revolutionaries. This stand is illusory: there is no oblivion … Continue reading

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