the Christian Enigma

12.5 The Great Apostasy

12.5.1 The Responsibility of the Church Pope Boniface died in 1303, after the emissaries of Philip IV of France had rudely mishandled him. The Holy See was thereafter transferred to Avignon. The French Popes who occupied the papal seat appeared … Continue reading

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12.6 The New Weltanschauung

12.6.1 The desecration of the Cosmos A mutation of the Christian spirituality is apparent during the Renaissance, when the Augustinian monk Erasmus in 1528, and the Augustinian monk Luther in his preface of the Bible, expressed their distrust of miracles. … Continue reading

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12.7 The Counter Reform

12.7.1 Silence, theologians! In 1562, Breughel painted “Mad Meg” (Dolle Griet), now exposed in Antwerp. The painting (fig. 12.32) depicts the ravages of war as vividly as Picasso did in later times with “Guernica”. Figure 12.32. Dulle Griet, Mad Meg, … Continue reading

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13.0 Introduction

The newly created European Nation-States expanded over the World. Some regions of the world were sparsely occupied by primitive cultures, which made invasion easy, but others had a long history of civand were populous and developed enough to repel any … Continue reading

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13.1 The Christian Republic Of The Guarani

Could the colonization of the Americas have proceeded more humanely? Definitely yes, it could as it could in all other colonies of the world, if it had proceeded with intelligence. Bartholomew de Las Casas had at one time secured from … Continue reading

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13.2 The Process Of Expansion

Around the year 1200 of this era, the Old World appears as a great plain sparsely inhabited by Siberian Hunters adapted to the cold and relying on the horse and the camel for their survival. In the Far East, the … Continue reading

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13.3 The New Weapons

In 1326, Florentine official documents refer to the acquisition of bronze guns shooting iron balls 2. After 1330, guns were used in warfare. Firearms were used in 1346 at Crécy, where the English opposed the French. The widespread demand for … Continue reading

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13.4 Land Expansion Of Greek Christianity

The Mongolic invasion of Russia occurred in 1223. Seventeen years later, Kiev fell and never rose again. In 1242, the Golden Horde was on the Adriatic. The Mongol was militarily superior and could have stayed in Latin lands and would … Continue reading

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13.5 Sea Expansion Of Latin Christianity

In the year 1000, Leif Erickson discovered Vineland 3. This discovery of Newfoundland and even Maine remained without consequences. The sea nomads withdrew fast from lands they were unable to plunder or easily colonize. The discovery of America by the … Continue reading

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13.6 Empire Building

The strength of the European was on the sea. No serious land-based adventures or direct political control of the land initially took place, unless special conditions were met, as was the case of North America occupied by primitive civilizations, lying … Continue reading

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